Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which your pancreas, the organ responsible for controlling your blood sugar, has problems. Your body may not have enough insulin, or it stops producing insulin. A lack of insulin can cause poor glucose absorption by your cells which use it to produce energy and by your liver which stores it. This poor absorption results in high blood sugar levels.
There are two types of diabetes mellitus. These are Type I, also known as juvenile onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, and Type II, also known as maturity-onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes.
Type I (insulin dependent) diabetes, which is most common in young people, causes the pancreas to produce very little insulin. This defect is caused due to damage to insulin-producing cells. Because insulin is not produced in your body, it cannot use glucose and will instead turn to fat for energy. This could lead to dangerous conditions such as diabetic coma.
In Type II (insulin-independent) diabetes; which attacks people commonly around their forties, the cells which produce insulin are still functioning, but the amount of insulin is insufficient for your body’s needs. This type of diabetes affects people who eat excessively and are often overweight. Patients with this type of disorder are often overweight and have high blood glucose levels. The pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to deal with the excess. This type is influenced by genetics and hereditary factors. One third of these cases involve a family member who is suffering from the disease. Your age is another factor, as your function of the pancreas decreases with age.